Active listening exercise and analysis of the interlocutor’s interest

Article translated by dott. Tommaso Pasqualini, CIELS Advanced Degree in Strategic Communication (“Laurea Magistrale in Comunicazione Strategica”), extracted with the author’s permission from the book “Intercultural Negotiation. Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers” (original title: “Negoziazione interculturale. Comunicare oltre le barriere culturali. Dalle relazioni interne sino alle trattative internazionali”), written by Daniele Trevisani, published by Franco Angeli, Milan.

Once again, these attitudes are valuable and determine the quality of the listening phase, but they should not be confused with the objectives of the entire negotiation (which includes both listening and proposing phases).

In a negotiation, it is possible (and is in fact one of the strategic objectives) to modify what others think (cognitive and persuasive restructuring) or how others feel (emotional action), but this objective will be pursued only and exclusively if the negotiator has first succeeded in establishing active listening, activating the empathy necessary to understand the framework in which he is moving.

Active listening exercise and analysis of the interlocutor’s interest

The following exercise aims to sensitize the participant to explore the reactions of others to persuasive proposals or negotiation options.

The theoretical concept used is that of latitude of acceptance: the attitudinal position of the subject that emerges when a specific proposal referring to a product, an idea or a persuasive activity is made. In the words of Trevisani (2002)

Among the individuals present within a target or heterogeneous sample of companies, there are varieties and differentiations regarding the nature of pre-existing attitude. Within a large population, the distribution of pre-existing attitudes often takes the form of a normal curve (Gaussian curve, in statistical terms), which sees the presence of an area of strongly positive individuals, a mass of “uncertain” or individuals who hold weak attitudes, and an area of individuals with negative attitudes. It is therefore necessary for the salesperson to understand this scenario of pre-existing attitudes, as he will have to deal with this scenario.

The term “attitude” in Anglo-Saxon psychological and marketing terminology corresponds to the Italian equivalent of “atteggiamento” (attitude). With a little linguistic translation, we will use this term to define the concept of “attitudinal segmentation”, understood as the stratification of the market according to pre-existing attitudes.

Our technique identifies five macro-groups, differentiated in terms of latent attitudes toward the product:

Group A: open and willing subjects who have strongly positive attitudes; the beliefs held are all positive and relevant.

Group B: subjects have weak or moderate positive attitudes. These subjects can be placed in B even when positive beliefs (prevalent) are combined with negative beliefs (minority). Group C: subjects who do not have a clear orientation, due to unavailability of previous experience or difficulty in evaluating, or lack of knowledge on the matter;

Article translated by dott. Tommaso Pasqualini, CIELS Advanced Degree in Strategic Communication (“Laurea Magistrale in Comunicazione Strategica”), extracted with the author’s permission from the book “Intercultural Negotiation. Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers” (original title: “Negoziazione interculturale. Comunicare oltre le barriere culturali. Dalle relazioni interne sino alle trattative internazionali”), written by Daniele Trevisani, published by Franco Angeli, Milan.

Other online material available in these sites:
Other available online resources

CIELS Institutional Website: https://www.ciels.it/

1.1 Bringing out the inner dialogue. Communication, identity and risks of incommunicability

Communication implies an exchange of information and emotions. Reflecting about our identity demands us to shed light on our true nature, our being. Transferring ‘who we are’ to others is always difficult, as human complexity and the many roles and personality nuances that are part of us form a truly enormous galaxy. We are atoms in an infinite aquarium of molecules, every now and then we try to stop and talk to each other, but we realise how difficult it is to stop and talk to each other.

Incommunicability can prevent us from making others understand what we would like to do, how we feel, what we really are, and what we could be.

A major source of incommunicability occurs when we have not first clarified ourselves, our being, the boundaries of our mental space and role in the world. I may not be able to transfer information correctly because I myself have a blurred, unclarified representation of it within myself. The resulting communication will certainly carry doses of incommunicability from the start.

The whole problem of life is this: how to break one’s own solitude, how to communicate with others.

(Cesare Pavese)

Focused introspection has a name in psychology, it means Focusing. Focusing (whether in the variant of emotional focusing – shedding light on emotions, or informational focusing – shedding light on data and facts), allows us to clarify – first of all to ourselves – what we want to convey, what we feel is important to convey, and what we want to happen as a result of our communication (communicative effect or result).

The theme of incommunicability leads us to ask ourselves which is the possible “common ground”, what “you and I” have potentially to share, which common interests we have or could have, what we could talk about.

The theme of the four distances also requires us to look for possible areas of common interest in the roles people present to us, the common communication codes we might have, the common values we have or might have, our shared pasts, even if only on an emotional or experiential level.

Fighting against incommunicability on an intrapsychic level, interpersonal level, and in mediated contexts (e.g., email, writing, computer messages, presentations, social exchanges) requires a great deal of self-awareness, first of all. Asking ourselves what we really believe in, asking ourselves if we are really communicating authentically, is not wasted time. Internalising values, feeling them our own, strongly wanting to break down the barriers of incommunicability, is a sacred and noble task.

“Learning and teaching things that one cannot fully accept in one’s inner self is always a difficult task.”

Albert Einstein

Bringing out the content of our ‘thought cloud’, the thoughts that always accompany us even if not formulated in words, allows us to interact between ‘my world’ and ‘your world’ to find common spaces.

Explaining the internal dialogue is a technique, called ‘think aloud‘. a way to approach authentic communication. Not everyone always tells us what they are thinking. Saying what we are thinking is a liberating act. Saying things clearly is much better than keeping them inside to fester.

The important thing is that we don’t create a kind of ‘destructive honesty’ that puts truth and ‘telling’ before the rights of other people, including sometimes the right to be left alone or not to know.

Opening up the cloud of our thoughts and those of others, when we have given ourselves the space to do so in a conscious and shared way, allows us to see what is inside, requires letting go of all those communicative fears, and the fear of rejection, of judgement, towards the desire to seek a free flow of communicative exchange.

This search for common worlds or common interests concerns both personal and professional contacts, friendships in the real world, but also “friendships” on social networks, where – without any commonality and common interest, even if only in terms of values – there will be no true and deep communication.

Sometimes true inner listening, and access to one’s own personal ‘cloud of thoughts’ is only possible in certain situations of relaxation, or even in states of trance, where the filter of rationality is lowered. In the coaching sessions I conduct, by bringing people to greater emotional quietness, I am able to produce conditions in which one can grasp one’s inner dialogue much better. This means freeing the cloud from the cages and constrictions that keep it stifled, letting it express itself, and then turning it into words, whether referring to facts or emotional states.

The Four Distances powerfully enter into the possibility or not of having a communicative exchange centred on authentic, direct, true communication and not the falsehood that emerges from masks and forced roles.

What is that “something” that holds us together? It is enough that there is something, even minimal, that acts as a point of union, in order to be able to expand it, widening the depth of a relationship.

The Common Ground or territory of intersection is what unites us. It can be just a small, minimal, limited common interest, or a strong common interest in a wide range of areas of life. The quantity and quality of this Common Ground offers space for constructive communication, but it has to be sought, it does not come by magic.

Having things to say to each other requires an active search for Common Ground.

Finding it is not only pleasant. It is vital.

The failure of a relationship is almost always a failure of communication.

Zygmunt Bauman, Liquid Love, 2003.

Dr. Daniele Trevisani

– Master of Arts in Mass Communication, University of Florida (USA)

– Fulbright Scholar, Intercultural Communication, American University of Washington, DC (USA)

– Certified Advanced Coach by STEP™

– Certified Counselor by STEP™

– Certified Coaching Supervisor by STEP™

– Certified Counseling Supervisor by STEP™

– Master Trainer HPM™ Human Potential Method

– Master Trainer ALM™ Business Coaching Method

– Master Trainer 4DM™ Intercultural Communication Method

Riepilogo didattico I Lezione Prof Daniele Trevisani

dott. Daniele TrevisaniNEGOZIAZIONE INTERCULTURALE – Comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali. Dalle relazioni interne sino alle trattative internazionali, Franco Angeli Edizioni, 2016.

dott. Daniele TrevisaniParliamoci chiaro, Gribaudo, 2019.

dott. Recalenda Marco, appunti da corso di Negoziazione di prof. Daniele Trevisani www.danieletrevisani.it www.comunicazioneaziendale.it, Padova, 25/02/2021.

Presso Campus Ciels Padova, Laurea Magistrale in Comunicazione Strategica LM

Corso di Negoziazione, vedi Trevisani Daniele – Campus Ciels

Parole chiave della lezione

  • perché
  • microanalisi comportamentale
  • consonanze comunicative
  • dissonanze comunicative
  • body language
  • verbale
  • non verbale
  • mission negoziale
  • comunicazione autocentrata
  • comunicazione empatica
  • empowerment
  • riformulare
  • analisi delle microespressioni
  • empatia
  • connessione emozionale
  • distanze relazionali
  • mossa conversazionale
  • problem setting
  • problem solving
  • patto psicologico
  • patto formale
  • common ground
  • modello PsyCap
  • 4 distance model
  • comunicazione efficace
  • incomunicabilità
  • modello ALM
  • modello HPM
  • modello 4LE
  • modello Scala di Fisher
  • intelligenza emotiva
  • ruota di Plutchik
  • canale esperienziale
  • communication breakdown

Concetti fondamentali trattati

  1. Linguaggio verbale e non verbale:  Il body language trasmette sensazioni anche quando la voce non vuole. Per questo è necessario riuscire a leggere le dissonanze comunicative, ovvero quando il body language (linguaggio non verbale) non è coerente con il linguaggio verbale. Al contrario, si parla di consonanze comunicative quando il body language è coerente con il linguaggio verbale.
  2. Empowerment: potere personale di agire, fare, prendersi impegni per se stessi o per gli altri.
  3. Comunicazione empatica: nella negoziazione è necessario dare importanza e concentrarsi sull’altro. Ciò è possibile grazie ad abilità come la connessione empatica, che consiste nella capacità di connettersi alle emozioni dell’altro.
  4. Nella negoziazione è fondamentale fissare il problema (problem setting) per poi risolverlo (problem solving).
  5. In una negoziazione il patto psicologico precede il patto formale: prima di iniziare ufficialmente un’attività (patto formale), è necessario che entrambe le parti riconoscano e accettino i rispettivi ruoli (patto psicologico). Es.: io accetto che l’altro è l’insegnante e quest’ultimo accetta che io sono lo studente (patto psicologico), solo così è possibile iniziare la lezione (patto formale).
  6. In ambito di negoziazione, è possibile ricorrere a 7 modelli: modello I – “Psycap”, modello del capitale psicologico (mindset del negoziatore = ottimismo, speranza, resilienza); modello II – “4 distance model”, modello delle 4 distanze (comunicazione efficace e incomunicabilità); modello III – “ALM”, asset liability management (negoziazioni aziendali); modello IV – “HPM”, human potential modelling (modello del potenziale umano/personale); modello V –  “4LE”, 4 level empathy (4 aree dell’empatia); modello VI – “Scala di Fisher”, scala degli stati di coscienza; modello VII – “Ruota di Plutchik” o delle emozioni (intelligenza emotiva).

Sintesi del mio apprendimento:

Ho capito che: 

  • in una negoziazione è fondamentale capire i “perché” dell’altro; 
  • è necessario che ciò che viene promesso venga sempre mantenuto; 
  • si ricorre alla comunicazione empatica, al fine di centrare l’attenzione sull’altro; 
  • per far sì che la negoziazione vada a buon fine e favorire il processo di empowerment non bisogna mai avere fretta; 
  • il negoziatore ha due possibilità: o porge una domanda o riformula quanto detto dall’altro, perché la riformulazione spinge l’altra persona a parlare di più, fornendo più elementi da poter utilizzare; 
  • è necessario effettuare una vera e propria analisi delle microespressioni, al fine di cogliere ogni aspetto della conversazione, poiché spesso il linguaggio non verbale comunica più del verbale; 
  • durante una negoziazione è necessario prestare sempre attenzione a ciò che viene detto e, soprattutto, non si deve mai interrompere l’altro;
  • per negoziare, è fondamentale essere rilassati;
  • sono necessari tanta pratica ed esercizio.

Ho imparato a dare inizio ad una negoziazione utilizzando domande e mosse conversazionali che permettono di centrare l’attenzione sull’altro, a prestare più attenzione alle parole e ai movimenti della persona con la quale interagisco.

Ho riflettuto sul fatto che il negoziatore, oltre ad avere un’elevata capacità comunicativa, deve controllare le proprie emozioni, essere sicuro e rilassato e ciò è frutto di un importante lavoro interiore. Quindi, al fine di migliorare nella comunicazione devo incrementare il mio repertorio comunicativo e lavorare principalmente su me stesso, in termini di sicurezza, così da potermi concentrare poi sull’altro.

Fonti:

dott. Daniele Trevisani, NEGOZIAZIONE INTERCULTURALE – Comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali. Dalle relazioni interne sino alle trattative internazionali, Franco Angeli Edizioni, 2016.

dott. Daniele Trevisani, Parliamoci chiaro, Gribaudo, 2019.

dott. Recalenda Marco, appunti da corso di Negoziazione di prof. Daniele Trevisani www.danieletrevisani.it www.comunicazioneaziendale.it, Padova, 25/02/2021.

Ulteriori materiali online in questi siti:
Sito Studio Trevisani Formazione Coaching Consulenza (Italian & English)
Sito Daniele Trevisani (Italian)
Website Dr. Daniele Trevisani (English)
Comunicazione Aziendale
Comunicazione Interculturale
Medialab Research
Intercultural Negotiation (English)
Operational Negotiation (English)
Linkedin Profile Dr. Daniele Trevisani
Ulteriori ricerche online disponibili
Pubblicazioni e libri dott. Daniele Trevisani (Books published)
Rivista online gratuita di Comunicazione, Potenziale Umano e Management
Iscrizione gratuita al Blog Studiotrevisani.it tramite Email
Canale YouTube
Sito istituzionale CIELS: https://www.ciels.it/

Hidden Interculturality in the Company: the Negotiation Between Different Professional Cultures

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

Example of Recognition and Modulation of Sub-Languages ​​in a Sales Negotiation.

Each administrative communication session can be destroyed by the use of dysfunctional styles and jargons, words, and inappropriate attitudes. In the case we present below, we can see how two corporate cultures can collide when one (or both) don’t care 1 – to take into account the comprehensibility of one’s own language, of the terms used, to explain the terms that allow understanding of the speech (terminological metacommunication capacity); 2 – of the precision of the language.

How communication style choices increase negotiation distances In a business meeting between an IT company and a mechanical company, the conductor (owner of the IT company) mainly uses two repertoires and related communication strategies:

  • the use of a dense repertoire of English-speaking terminologies even where it is not necessary (Anglophone managerialese);
  • the dressing of terminologies with phrases that obscure the meaning and create connotative penumbra (smoky meanings), with the function of “softening” the image and workload that the adoption of the program provides (diminutive style).

Tab. 3 – Elements of repertoire, managerialese-diminutive style (A)

Repertoire used for the “Anglophone managerialese” componentRepertoire for the “diminutive style”
1 – Make a forecast
2 – He is a staff user
3 – I have seen the account
4 – Get the Function Description
5 – If you want to contact the trader
6 – We need to address the target setter
7 – You want to do a tracking
8 – If it overdues
9 – We have a visit
10 – We must give a reason
11 – We work on the field
12 – Make a pricing
13 – I take a sales call
14 – At the front end
15 – To the backend
16 – I do the query
17 – It is an activity report
18 – Take a survey
19 – A little more friendly
20 – The Repository
21 – To activate the click-stream analysis you need the BW
1 – It seems to me that they are satisfied customers
2 – We need to think about it for a moment
3 – Let’s take a very quick tour
4 – The version for the handheld
5 – A little like on the internet
6 – A small graph
7 – We are seeing a little concrete application
8 – Let’s see if it’s possible for a moment
9 – Let’s do a little check then let’s see
10 – I think it can be done

In four hours of meeting, we can witness the Collision of conversational states, in which a team (sales team) uses repertoire A (“diminutive English-speaking computer managerial”), while the purchasing team uses a repertoire similar to the following:

Tab. 4 – Elements of the pragmatic-concrete style

Terminological repertory (words)Pragmatic questions
1 – The market
2- Customers
3 – Internal staff
4 – The workload
5 – Ease of learning
6 – Integration with existing programs
7 – Hours
8 – Days
9 – Cost of licenses
10 – Limitations of use
11 – Skills  
1 – On this project, who does what in our company and who does what in your company?
2 – Can we use the program we are down using to produce the website or do we have to switch to another program?
3 – Do we have to change the program?
4 – Can we continue to use Macintoshes or should we switch to Windows?
5 – What are the internal skills of the company needed to make the system work day after day?
6 – Who needs to know what to do?
7 – How long can a training course last?
8 – Who should participate?
9 – If I want to change a data entry screen, can I do it from within or do we have to make a request to you?
10 – How many days will it take to start and set up the program?
11 – Can we personally visit a company that has already adopted this system?
12 – Do you need a license?

Meeting styles tutorial Reproduce through role-playing the progress of a possible meeting between team A (“managerialese-diminutive” sales team composed of owner and shoulder) and team B (“concrete-pragmatic” purchasing team composed of owner and shoulder

Intercultural Negotiation Arab Edition

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

For further information see:

Presentati (articolo di esempio)

Questo è un articolo di esempio, pubblicato originariamente come parte della Blogging University. Abbonati a uno dei nostri dieci programmi e inizia bene il tuo blog.

Oggi pubblicherai un articolo. Non preoccuparti di come appare il blog. Non preoccuparti se non gli hai ancora dato un nome o ti senti sopraffatto. Devi solo fare clic sul pulsante “Nuovo articolo” e dirci perché sei qui.

Perché lo fai?

  • Perché darà un nuovo contesto ai lettori. Di cosa vuoi parlare? Perché dovrebbero leggere il tuo blog?
  • Perché ti aiuterà a focalizzare le idee e cosa ti piacerebbe realizzare con il tuo blog.

L’articolo può essere breve o lungo, un’introduzione personale alla tua vita o una dichiarazione d’intenti tipica da blog, un manifesto per il futuro o un semplice schema dei tipi di cose che speri di pubblicare.

Per aiutarti a iniziare, ecco alcune domande:

  • Perché stai scrivendo su un blog pubblico, invece di tenere un diario personale?
  • Di quali argomenti pensi che scriverai?
  • Con chi ti piacerebbe connetterti tramite il blog?
  • Se il blog avrà successo nel corso del prossimo anno, quale scopo speri avrai raggiunto?

Non sei incatenato a nessuna di queste cose: uno degli aspetti meravigliosi dei blog è il modo in cui si evolvono costantemente a mano a mano che impariamo, cresciamo e interagiamo con gli altri, ma è bene sapere dove e perché hai iniziato e formulare i tuoi obiettivi potrebbe ispirarti qualche altro articolo.

Non riesci a pensare a come iniziare? Scrivi la prima cosa che ti viene in mente. Anne Lamott, autrice di un libro che amiamo sullo scrivere, dice che devi darti il permesso di scrivere una “prima bozza scadente”. Anne fa esattamente il punto: inizia a scrivere e preoccupati di modificarlo solo in un secondo momento.

Quando sei pronto per pubblicare, assegna al tuo articolo da tre a cinque tag che descrivano il focus del tuo blog: scrivere, fotografia, fiction, genitorialità, cibo, automobili, film, sport, qualsiasi cosa. I tag aiuteranno le persone che si interessano di questi argomenti a trovarti nel Lettore. Assicurati che uno dei tag sia “zerotohero”, in modo che anche altri nuovi blogger possano trovarti.

Presentati (articolo di esempio)

Questo è un articolo di esempio, pubblicato originariamente come parte della Blogging University. Abbonati a uno dei nostri dieci programmi e inizia bene il tuo blog.

Oggi pubblicherai un articolo. Non preoccuparti di come appare il blog. Non preoccuparti se non gli hai ancora dato un nome o ti senti sopraffatto. Devi solo fare clic sul pulsante “Nuovo articolo” e dirci perché sei qui.

Perché lo fai?

  • Perché darà un nuovo contesto ai lettori. Di cosa vuoi parlare? Perché dovrebbero leggere il tuo blog?
  • Perché ti aiuterà a focalizzare le idee e cosa ti piacerebbe realizzare con il tuo blog.

L’articolo può essere breve o lungo, un’introduzione personale alla tua vita o una dichiarazione d’intenti tipica da blog, un manifesto per il futuro o un semplice schema dei tipi di cose che speri di pubblicare.

Per aiutarti a iniziare, ecco alcune domande:

  • Perché stai scrivendo su un blog pubblico, invece di tenere un diario personale?
  • Di quali argomenti pensi che scriverai?
  • Con chi ti piacerebbe connetterti tramite il blog?
  • Se il blog avrà successo nel corso del prossimo anno, quale scopo speri avrai raggiunto?

Non sei incatenato a nessuna di queste cose: uno degli aspetti meravigliosi dei blog è il modo in cui si evolvono costantemente a mano a mano che impariamo, cresciamo e interagiamo con gli altri, ma è bene sapere dove e perché hai iniziato e formulare i tuoi obiettivi potrebbe ispirarti qualche altro articolo.

Non riesci a pensare a come iniziare? Scrivi la prima cosa che ti viene in mente. Anne Lamott, autrice di un libro che amiamo sullo scrivere, dice che devi darti il permesso di scrivere una “prima bozza scadente”. Anne fa esattamente il punto: inizia a scrivere e preoccupati di modificarlo solo in un secondo momento.

Quando sei pronto per pubblicare, assegna al tuo articolo da tre a cinque tag che descrivano il focus del tuo blog: scrivere, fotografia, fiction, genitorialità, cibo, automobili, film, sport, qualsiasi cosa. I tag aiuteranno le persone che si interessano di questi argomenti a trovarti nel Lettore. Assicurati che uno dei tag sia “zerotohero”, in modo che anche altri nuovi blogger possano trovarti.

Presentati (articolo di esempio)

Questo è un articolo di esempio, pubblicato originariamente come parte della Blogging University. Abbonati a uno dei nostri dieci programmi e inizia bene il tuo blog.

Oggi pubblicherai un articolo. Non preoccuparti di come appare il blog. Non preoccuparti se non gli hai ancora dato un nome o ti senti sopraffatto. Devi solo fare clic sul pulsante “Nuovo articolo” e dirci perché sei qui.

Perché lo fai?

  • Perché darà un nuovo contesto ai lettori. Di cosa vuoi parlare? Perché dovrebbero leggere il tuo blog?
  • Perché ti aiuterà a focalizzare le idee e cosa ti piacerebbe realizzare con il tuo blog.

L’articolo può essere breve o lungo, un’introduzione personale alla tua vita o una dichiarazione d’intenti tipica da blog, un manifesto per il futuro o un semplice schema dei tipi di cose che speri di pubblicare.

Per aiutarti a iniziare, ecco alcune domande:

  • Perché stai scrivendo su un blog pubblico, invece di tenere un diario personale?
  • Di quali argomenti pensi che scriverai?
  • Con chi ti piacerebbe connetterti tramite il blog?
  • Se il blog avrà successo nel corso del prossimo anno, quale scopo speri avrai raggiunto?

Non sei incatenato a nessuna di queste cose: uno degli aspetti meravigliosi dei blog è il modo in cui si evolvono costantemente a mano a mano che impariamo, cresciamo e interagiamo con gli altri, ma è bene sapere dove e perché hai iniziato e formulare i tuoi obiettivi potrebbe ispirarti qualche altro articolo.

Non riesci a pensare a come iniziare? Scrivi la prima cosa che ti viene in mente. Anne Lamott, autrice di un libro che amiamo sullo scrivere, dice che devi darti il permesso di scrivere una “prima bozza scadente”. Anne fa esattamente il punto: inizia a scrivere e preoccupati di modificarlo solo in un secondo momento.

Quando sei pronto per pubblicare, assegna al tuo articolo da tre a cinque tag che descrivano il focus del tuo blog: scrivere, fotografia, fiction, genitorialità, cibo, automobili, film, sport, qualsiasi cosa. I tag aiuteranno le persone che si interessano di questi argomenti a trovarti nel Lettore. Assicurati che uno dei tag sia “zerotohero”, in modo che anche altri nuovi blogger possano trovarti.

The Clarification of Concepts and the Precision of Language

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

The Four Descriptive Filters

On the intercultural level, as we have noted, even relatively simple and taken-for-granted concepts (eg: “home”, “work”, “friendship”) are misunderstood. It is therefore advisable to carry out activities of setting the semantic boundaries (setting the meanings) that allow to specify the language. Building the common linguistic basis requires clarification on several levels. Each keyword, each word or concept in general, can be read through at least four descriptive filters. Let’s create an example on the Italian word “gondola”.

The possible attributes are:

  • Perceptive: it is long and narrow:
  • Functional: used to transport tourists;
  • Associatives: it makes me think of Venice;
  • Social-Symbolic: recalls a romantic experience, for classy people;
  • Encyclopedic: it is made of wood, it has been used since the year ….., it is built like this ….

The same problem occurs on the business level. Let’s imagine that we are carrying out a “marketing consultancy” on behalf of an Indian, Korean or Chinese client. We should first compare the two mental images of the word “marketing”, understand which of the two different concepts of marketing the customer is thinking about. For example:

Concept A (marketing as an operational tool). Analysis:Concept B (marketing as a strategic tool). Analysis
Perceptual: marketing is equivalent to advertising and promotion, sales, advertisingPerceptual: Marketing is the search for new or better products to satisfy human needs
Functional: used to sell moreFunctional: used to better design products and services
Associative: it is an instrument of capitalism and consumerismAssociative: it is a research tool
Socio-Symbolic: it is for advanced, large, technological or very managerial companiesSocio-Symbolic: it requires respect for the customer and the will to satisfy him, it can be used by anyone
Encyclopedic: deals with concepts such as the marketing mix, customer satisfaction, promotionEncyclopedic: deals with concepts such as marketing mix, customer satisfaction, promotion, but above all market research, creativity, customer orientation

Starting an intercultural negotiation means first of all clarifying semantic concepts, the latent meanings of words, mental associations, and not taking them for granted. Through associative techniques, it is also possible to search for the “stereotypes” that people possess with respect to the concepts dealt with.

For example, dealing with the training of a salesperson means first of all clarifying what the mental image of our interlocutor is, understanding what is behind the word “salesman”.

Tab. 1 – Different conception of two sales cultures: the seller …

– He has to talk a lot
– He has to be a bit stupid and work hard, no matter he is a graduate
he doesn’t have to do strategy, we make the strategy
– He have to be around all day
– He has to bring us results
– He has to listen a lot he has to be intelligent and creative
– He has to be a strategist of his territory, respecting the guidelines
– He has to act with targeted appointments
– We have to put him in a position to give the best results

Without clarifying these points, any action risks being based on wrong and misunderstood concepts.

negoziazione interculturale
Intercultural Negotiation Arab Edition

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

For further information see:

intercultural negotiation working communication

Conversational Cooperation and Work on The Negotiation of Meanings

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

The result of the lack of proper negotiator training is failure

As Zorzi (1996) points out, communication requires conversational cooperation and work on the negotiation of meanings: “Analyzing intercultural encounters, we have seen how the interaction between people from different cultures is marked by a series of moments of asynchrony, which manifest themselves in silences, overlaps, unexpected reactions, interruptions, etc. which show the difficulty of establishing and maintaining conversational cooperation due to differences in cultural background and communication conventions.

Participants, normally unaware of both socio-cultural knowledge and the communicative conventions that contribute to their interpretation (and, normally, also unaware of their own conversational conventions), have only the perception of a failed encounter, the causes of which are rarely identified. They explain what happened more often in psychological terms than in sociological or cultural terms, perceiving the other person as uncooperative, aggressive, stupid, incompetent or with unpleasant personal characteristics. Repeated unsuccessful intercultural encounters with different people over time lead to the formation of negative cultural stereotypes (Chick, 1990: 253 et seq).

Zorzi reports this excerpt of real dialogue taken from Blommaert: A is the Belgian, B is the African. They are in Brussels on a winter afternoon.)

A: Do you want a coffee?

B: No, thanks, I’m not hungry.

A: Do you want a COFFEE?

B: No, thanks. (short pause) I’m not hungry. (long pause)

A: Would you like to go for a drink? B: Sure, with pleasure, it’s really cold. A: Maybe a coffee?

B: Well, gladly.

As Zorzi points out, there are strong cultural and strategic implications at the base of this excerpt of communication difficulties: B reacts to the initial question as if he had been offered food, as in his culture (Haya, in northern Tanzania) guests are offered coffee beans to chew as a symbol of friendship, hospitality and wealth. Consequently, B’s categorization of coffee as “food” is entirely consistent.

The categorization of the Belgian, on the other hand, is “hot drink”. The first two bars of the dialogue highlight the difference between the two conceptions, which leads to a pragmalinguistic misunderstanding … Three phases can be identified in this exchange: a first of “observation” of what is happening, in which the participants become aware of the failure of communication: their contributions are perfectly consistent with their cultural assumptions, but do not work in that situation ; a second phase follows, the ‘search for a common ground‘ in which A avoids the problematic element (coffee).

Both then agree on ‘have a drink’. At this point the ‘dialogue’ phase begins: the idea of ​​going for something hot is explicitly appreciated and a common basis has been created to accept the idea of ​​coffee as a drink. This example shows how intercultural competence consists in achieving mutual adaptation (and not just the adaptation of the learner to the linguistic and cultural models of the host country). The primary objective of intercultural pedagogy – consequently – is to find teaching strategies so that subjects of different cultural origins can learn to communicate with each other regardless of differences in language, cultural behavior and beliefs.

The focus therefore shifts from the work that the single learner does to the way in which two people from different cultures manage to negotiate meanings and relationships through a linguistic medium in which they have very unbalanced skills. There is therefore a linguistic common ground that allows negotiators to get out of the impasse of the lack of a shared vocabulary. Trying to share the meaning of the terms, to get out of “semantic indeterminacy”, “semantic confusion”, “connotative shadows” is one of the main tools of the intercultural negotiator.

interc

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

For further information see:

Communication, negotiation and seduction

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com or www.danieletrevisani.it 

Negotiating requires the ability to seduce.

A seduction not at all sexual, but in fact comparable to courtship: the proposal must contain “appeal“, must respond to the impulses and needs of the interlocutor. A forced proposal is not negotiation in the strict sense but imposition. A poorly digested condition, moreover, lends itself much more to being refused a posteriori, disregarded, or not applied.

For thousands of years, theorists of each discipline have encouraged people to adapt their art to the different situations in which they will have to operate, recognizing the need to calibrate the strategy towards the interlocutor, creating a communication centered on the recipients. Aristotle, in Rhetoric, deals with public seduction and persuasion. He invites the politician to dynamically use ethos (credibility), logos (dialectical art) and pathos (ability to arouse emotions), centering the audience in being more intimate than him.

There is a seduction component in every negotiation In the Kamasutra of Vatsyayana – a classic Indian treatise on seduction – a sequence of different types of bite is listed, designed to cause pleasure: the hidden bite, the swollen bite, the point, the line of points, the coral and the jewel, the of jewels, the unbroken cloud, and finally the bite of the wild boar. The good seducer will have to adapt the type of bite to the situation. Western managers often use the “boar bite” (whatever action it is) a priori, perhaps receiving sound slaps in response, where perhaps the “hidden bite” would have given the desired effects. We are using a joking metaphor to express a message that is nevertheless strong: the communication strategy must take into account the cultural traits of the counterpart.

Let’s see an example of a micro-conversation between the Italian area manager and a possible Russian importer:

Area Manager: What guarantees can you give us?

Importer: What guarantees do you need?

Area Manager: Well, you need to learn how to sell our products, however don’t worry because we will give you courses, if you can’t pay them we discount them from commissions.

The Russian interlocutor perceives a latent message (“you are incapable”, “you are poor”, “you need”) linked to the course offer. The sentence touches the interlocutor’s entire cultic system, stirs a wounded “Russian pride” and the memories of suffering of an entire people. The Italian area manager has been able to destroy the corporate ethos in a few moves (giving the image of a company completely unprepared to negotiate with foreign interlocutors), using a dialectic based on “a priori” conflict (humiliate them), thus arousing emotions of revenge and revenge (at a minimum) in the interlocutor. A strategy of total ineffectiveness, based on wrong assumptions.

The offer of a course, presented in this way, does not create added value and aims solely at the disqualification of the interlocutor. Both Aristotle and Vatsyayana would have rejected this area manager. In this micro-negotiation there have been several “judgment biases” or errors of judgment, and neither of them have achieved any results. As research on the accuracy of intercultural assessments shows, the error of judgment (misunderstanding who you are dealing with, or badly decoding a message) – an error already present at an intra-cultural level – is enhanced by cultural distances, and it is one of the most destructive factors in negotiation.

To overcome the judgment biases it is necessary to take action, to prepare. Intercultural communication requires commitment, at the level of:

  • understanding of the cultural system with which one interacts;
  • knowledge of the underlying values ​​and beliefs of the interlocutor;
  • social identification: what status does the interlocutor have in his membership system;
  • methods of non-verbal communication;
  • analysis and resolution of conflicts. Every intercultural negotiator should have strong expertise on these matters in their curriculum.

Principle 9 – Training in intercultural communication

The success of negotiation communication depends on:

  • from the depth of communication training;
  • the ability to put into practice communicative skills of trans-cultural value;
  • the ability to identify communicative characteristics and specific cultural traits of the interlocutor to pay attention to.

© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com 

For further information see: